Psychology is the scientific study of people, the mind and behavior. It is both a thriving academic discipline and a vital professional practice. Psychologists and psychological research have a big impact on all aspects of public life, particularly in areas such as education, health, economy, industry and sociall justice.
Psychologists are experts in human behavior. Most psychologists help mentally healthy people to find ways of functioning better. For example, they train people to handle stress and family problems. Psychological therapies are also widely used by groups and organizations.
Many psychologists work independently. They also team up with other professionals, for example, other scientists, physicians, lawyers, school personnel, computer experts, engineers, policymakers, and managers—to contribute to every section of the society. Thus we find them in laboratories, hospitals,, courtrooms, schools and universities, community health centers, prisons, and corporate offices.
Psychologists specialize in a host of different areas within the field and identify themselves by many different labels. A sampling of those focal areas is presented to give you an idea of the breadth of psychology's content as well as the many different settings in which it is found. Additionally, many psychologists teach psychology in academic institutions from high schools to graduate programs in universities.
The field of psychology encompasses both, research through which we learn fundamental things about human and animal behavior and practice through which that knowledge is applied in helping to solve problems and promote healthy human development. In each of the subfields, there are psychologists who work primarily as researchers, others who work primarily as practitioners and many who combine both (scientist-practitioners). Indeed, one of the most unique and important characteristics of psychology is its coupling of science and practice which stimulates continual advancement of both.
Clinical Psychologists assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. These range from short-term crises such as difficulties resulting from adolescent rebellion to more severe and chronic conditions such as schizophrenia.
Some clinical psychologists treat specific problems exclusively such as phobias or clinical depression. Others focus on specific population: youngsters, ethnic minority groups, gays and lesbians, and the elderly for instance. They also consult with physicians on physical problems that have underlying psychological causes.
Cognitive and perceptual psychologists study human perception, thinking, and memory. Cognitive psychologists are interested in questions such as “how does the mind represent reality?,” “How do people learn?,” “How do people understand and produce language?.” Cognitive psychologists also study reasoning, judgment, and decision making. Cognitive and perceptual psychologists frequently collaborate with behavioral neuroscientists to understand the biological bases of perception or cognition or with researchers in other areas of psychology to better understand the cognitive biases in the thinking of people with depression, for example.
Counseling psychologists help people recognize their strengths and resources to cope up with their problems. Counseling psychologists do counseling/psychotherapy, teaching, and scientific research with individuals of all ages, families, and organizations (for example, schools, hospitals, businesses). Counseling psychologists help people understand and take action on career and work problems. They pay attention to how problems and people differ across life stages. Counseling psychologists have great respect for the influence of differences among people (such as race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and disability status) on psychological well-being. They believe that behavior is affected by many things including the qualities of the individual (for example, psychological, physical, or spiritual factors) and factors in the person's environment (for example, family, society, and cultural groups).
Developmental psychologists study the psychological development of the human being that takes place throughout life. Until recently, the primary focus was on childhood and adolescence, the most formative years. However, as life expectancy is approaching 80 years, developmental psychologists are becoming increasingly interested in aging, especially in researching and developing ways to help elderly people stay as independent as possible.
Educational psychologists concentrate on how effective teaching and learning take place. They consider a variety of factors such as human abilities, student motivation, and the effect of the diversity of race, language, ethnicity, and culture on the classroom.
Engineering psychologists conduct research on how people work best with machines. For example, how a computer be designed to prevent fatigue and eye strain, what arrangement of an assembly line makes production most efficient, and what a reasonable workload is. Most engineering psychologists work in industry, but some are employed by the government, particularly the Department of Defense. They are often known as human factors specialists.
Evolutionary psychologists study how evolutionary principles such as mutation, adaptation, and selective fitness influence human thought, feeling, and behavior. Due to their focus on genetically shaped behaviors that influence an organism's chances of survival, evolutionary psychologists study mating, aggression, helping behavior, and communication. Evolutionary psychologists are particularly interested in paradoxes and problems of evolution. For example, some behaviors that were highly adaptive in our evolutionary past may no longer be adaptive in the modern world.
Experimental psychologists are interested in a wide range of psychological phenomena, including cognitive processes, comparative psychology (cross-species comparisons), learning and conditioning, and psychophysics (the relationship between the physical brightness of a light and how bright the light is perceived to be, for instance). Experimental psychologists study both human and nonhuman animals with respect to their abilities to detect what is happening in a particular environment and to acquire and maintain responses to what is happening.
Experimental psychologists work with the empirical method (collecting data) and the manipulation of variables within the laboratory as a way of understanding certain phenomena and advancing scientific knowledge. In addition to working in academic settings, experimental psychologists work in places as diverse as manufacturing settings, zoos, and engineering firms.
Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to legal issues. Their expertise is often essential in court. They can, for example, help a judge decide which parent should have custody of a child or evaluate a defendant's mental competence to stand trial. Forensic psychologists also conduct research on jury behavior or eyewitness testimony. Some forensic psychologists are trained in both psychology and the law.
Health psychologists specialize in how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness. They study how patients handle illness; why some people don't follow medical advice; and the most effective ways to control pain or to change poor health habits. They also develop health care strategies that foster emotional and physical well-being.
Psychologists team up with medical personnel in private practice and in hospitals to provide patients with complete health care. They educate medical staff about psychological problems that arise from the pain and stress of illness and about symptoms that may seem to be physical in origin but actually have psychological causes.
Health psychologists also investigate issues that affect a large segment of society, and develop and implement programs to deal with these problems. Examples are teenage pregnancy, substance abuse,, risky sexual behaviors, smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet.
Industrial/organizational psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the work place in the interest of improving productivity and the quality of work life. Many serve as human resources specialists, helping organizations with staffing, training, and employee development. Others work as management consultants in such areas as strategic planning, quality management, and coping with organizational change.
Neuropsychologists (and behavioral neuropsychologists) explore the relationships between brain systems and behavior. For example, behavioral neuropsychologists may study the way the brain creates and stores memories, or how various diseases and injuries of the brain affect emotion, perception, and behavior. They design tasks to study normal brain functions with new imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Clinical neuropsychologists also assess and treat people. With the dramatic increase in the number of survivors of traumatic brain injury over the past 30 years, neuropsychologists are working with health teams to help brain-injured people resume productive lives.
Educational psychologists are trained to work specifically with school-going children and their care givers from pre-school to Higher grades. Areas of specialization would include all disorders relating to children, including developmental delays; learning disabilities; specialized school placement; emotional and behavioral difficulties. An educational psychologist is equally trained in psychotherapy techniques to assist with psychological problems affecting both school-going children and adults.
Quantitative and measurement psychologists focus on methods and techniques for designing experiments and analyzing psychological data. Some develop new methods for performing analysis; others create research strategies to assess the effect of social and educational programs and psychological treatment. They develop and evaluate mathematical models for psychological tests. They also propose methods for evaluating the quality and fairness of the tests.
Rehabilitation psychologists work with stroke and accident victims, people with mental retardation, and those with developmental disabilities caused by such conditions as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and autism. They help clients adapt to their situation, frequently working with other health care professionals. They deal with issues of personal adjustment, interpersonal relations, the work world, and pain management.
Rehabilitation psychologists are also involved in public health programs to prevent disabilities, including those caused by violence and substance abuse. They testify in court as expert witnesses about the causes and effects of a disability and a person's rehabilitation needs.
A Psychiatrist is a medical doctor, who has specialized in the field of Psychiatry. Psychiatrists have a medical training, they can examine, diagnose and treat patients with Medical Illness that can lead to Mental Problems. Psychiatrists are also trained in Psychotherapy and therefore are able to treat patients through Psychotherapeutic interventions. Psychiatrists can prescribe Medication and Psychotherapy to treat Mental Illness.
School psychologists work directly with public and private schools. They assess and counsel students,, consult with parents and school staff, and conduct behavioral interventions when appropriate. Most schools employ psychologists full time.
Social psychologists study how a person's mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people. They are interested in all aspects of interpersonal relationships, including both individual and group influences, and seek ways to improve such interactions. For example, their research helps us understand how people form attitudes toward others and when these are harmful—as in the case of prejudice—suggest ways to change them.
Social psychologists are found in a variety of settings, from academic institutions (where they teach and conduct research), to advertising agencies (where they study consumer attitudes and preferences), to businesses and government agencies (where they help with a variety of problems in organization and management).
Sports psychologists help athletes refine their focus on competition goals, become more motivated, and learn to deal with the anxiety and fear of failure that often accompany competition. The field is growing as sports of all kinds become more and more competitive and attract younger children than ever.
Other careers in psychology include positive psychologists, cognitive psychologists, neuropsychologists, environmental psychologists, positive psychologists, spiritual psychologist, psychometrics, psychotherapists, hypnotherapists, behavioral therapists, Life skill coach, and writers.